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Style Manual


Our style manual is the American Psychological Association (APA) Style Manual. Most of what you need for STWJ  is included on our pages listed below. We do deviate from the APA style for some types of articles, especially personal reflection pieces and articles based on STW discussions. These modifications to the APA standards are discussed below. Any special cases not covered in our material can be found at the free APA online Tutorial.

File format

Acceptable file formats for submitting articles to STWJ are MS Word and Open Office.

Papers on STW Discussions

STWJ publishes articles based on STW LinkedIn discussions. There is no reasonable way for a reader to find a given post within a long LinkedIn discussion. We therefore export the entire discussion to an MS Excel spreadsheet, post that spreadsheet in Google Docs, and reference that document in the paper’s reference list. The spreadsheet has four columns with the following information for each post: Number of the post, Author, Date of post, the Post itself.

In-text citations may refer to specific comments or to a STW discussion as a whole. In either case, the proper format for these citations is given in the “Citations” section below.

Author’s Bio

The author’s bio is included at the end of his/her article. It must be in paragraph form and is a maximum of 100 words. The bio may include contact information and or a personal website if so desired. The bio appears in italics.

Paragraphs & Formatting

This section deviates from the APA standards in order to create a file that is ready to be pasted into STWJ.

Use block paragraphs (no indentation on the first line) that are single spaced. One (and only one) “return” at the end of each paragraph will automatically insert one blank line between paragraphs.

Block quotations should be enclosed in quotes and indented five spaces from both sides of the page (use the word processor’s tool bar to adjust the margins for this … do not do it manually).

Avoid manual formatting wherever possible. For example, margins, bullets, headings, and paragraph separations should all be done via Word’s automatic features. If you do manual formatting, your editor will make you undo all of it before we can post your article to STWJ.


Scholarly articles should follow the APA standards exactly. Other type of articles may deviate from these standards (as specified on this page below) but should include a note indicating that they are doing so, with a note at the end of the article (signaled by an asterisk in the text at the first deviant occurrence) or at the beginning of the list of references if that seems more appropriate.

APA uses the author-date for citations. This allow readers to easily find the cited sources in the alphabetical list or references.

In-Text Citations

Most of the material in this section has been copied from the APA Online Tutorial.

Each citation should include the author’s last name and year of publication. Direct quotes should include the page number from the original source.

Here are some example citations when paraphrasing. Direct quotes would be the same, but with the addition of the page number.

  • Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples …
  • Early onset results in a more severe course (Kessler, 2003) …
  • In 2003, Kessler’s study showed that ….


Further details for situations not covered in this page are in the free APA Online Tutorial

Citations for LinkedIn Discussions

The APA standards treat discussions group postings as personal communications. However, for articles based on a discussion, the reader should be able to see the source material if they so desire. STWJ in-text citations to a specific comment(s) within a LinkedIn discussions will look like this:

Comment author’s last-name, year, Name-of-group & discussion originator last name, comment number(s).

Example (citing three separate comments by the same author:

(Bellinger, 2012, STW Alman, 17, 101, 226)

By including the comment number(s) in the citation, an interested reader can easily find the original comment(s).

If the citation refers to the discussion in general rather than to a specific comment(s), the citation simply provides the year and Name-of-group with the discussion originator last name.

(2012, STW Alman)


Reference lists for scholarly articles should follow the APA format exactly.

In addition, scholarly articles are expected to adhere to all of the APA guidelines regarding citations and reference lists. Other types of articles may deviate from these guidelines as specified on this page. For instance, personal reflection articles may list references that are not cited in the text. In all cases of deviating from the APA standards, a note should indicate that the standards are not being followed and the purpose of the reference list.

The most common situations are covered in the material below. For situations not covered in this document, please visit the APA Online Manual.

Reference List

The material in this section has been copied from the APA Online Manual.

References to LinkedIn Discussions

Articles which cite LinkedIn discussions, whether from STW or other groups, require modifications to the APA standards. In-text citations and the format for the reference list are both based on a Google Docs spreadsheet created to put the LinkedIn discussion into a convenient form (see “Papers on LinkedIn Discussions” on the Editor Instructions page for an explanation on how to do this).

The entry for the Reference List for a LinkedIn discussion looks like this:

Originator of the Discussion. (year). Name-of-group Discussion: name of discussion as originally stated. Cut-off date mm/dd/yy. URL for the Google Doc version of the discussion.


Alman, David. (2012). STW Discussion: How do I select systems methods for a given situation I am trying to deal with? Cut-off date 1/12/13.

Please note that the author of a specific comment cited in the text does NOT appear in the reference list. The author of the comment appears in the in-text citation only. For articles which reference LinkedIn discussions, the first item in the reference list should be this:

Note: All of the in-text citations to the LinkedIn STW discussion refer to the single reference found at “Name of discussion originator. (2012). STW Discussion …”. The author of the specific comment is NOT listed in the “References”.

The “Cut-off date” is the cut-off date used for the article and may not be the end of the discussion. If the discussion is from some group other than STW, then that group’s name would replace “STW” in the entry.


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